ABSTRACT:Head trauma occupies the first place among all types of pediatric trauma. Decompression of the bone flap is a common surgical method in neurosurgery to reduce intracranial pressure, but the loss of the skull will lead to the lack of skull protection of the child's brain tissue, and the skull as the most direct protective barrier of brain tissue, if the defect is not repaired in time, it will cause brain tissue to move in the skull due to position, emotion and abdominal pressure, resulting in brain penetration malformations, seizures and cerebral degeneration atrophy and other injuries. Children have the characteristics of hyperactivity, poor compliance, and poor self-protection ability, and are more likely to form secondary injuries. At the same time, children in the growth and development period are not only vulnerable to secondary injuries in later life, but also affect the normal development of the child's nervous system, resulting in mental retardation, imperfect nervous system development and other related complications, so the integrity of the reconstruction of the skull has a very important impact on the child's later life. The immature dura mater plays a crucial role in the development of the skull and the repair of defects, and children under 2 years of age can repair huge skull defects, while adults lack this endogenous ability. BMP2 was significantly upregulated in bone defects in young animals, indicating that BMP2 plays an important role in bone tissue regeneration4. This review summarizes the research status of BMP2 in the repair of pediatric skull defects.